History has seen various administrations established in Xinjiang. The Xinjiang region was under the rule of Xiyuduhu in the Han Dynasty (206 B.C.-220 A.D.), the rule of Beiting and Anxi in the Tang Dynasty (618-907), administered by Alimali and Bieshibali Provincial authorities of the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368). The Imperial Government of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), after suppressing the rebellion in the western frontier, named the region "Xinjiang" meaning the new frontier area where a rebellion has just been put down, and set up the administration of Jiangjunfu in Ili. Xinjiang, as a province of China, was set up by the Qing Imperial Government in 1884. After Chinese Communist Party took over China (1949), Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region was proclaimed in 1955.
The education system in xinjiang, as elsewhere in China, can be simply summarized as "four educations" and "7 levels". The "four educations" refers to pre-school education, primary education, secondary education and higher education. The "7 levels" refers to kindergarten, primary school, junior high school, senior high school, higher college education, undergraduate education and postgraduate education.
By the year 2013, there are 605 primary schools,895 high schools and 61universities.(According to the report of Education Office of xinjiang)
There are a lot of international students who come from Central Asia countries in Xinjiang. In 1924,Xinjiang Russian and Law School was founded, which is known as the former school of Xinjiang University. In 1935, it was converted to Xinjiang College. Xinjiang University was named in 1960 and it is located in the southern part of Urumqi. Among its prominent leaders was Du Zhongyuan, who was, however, executed in 1943 on suspicion of being subversive. It is a national key comprehensive university with students from various ethnic groups and one of the two universities in Xinjiang entering the national “211 Project”. On December 30, 2000, the former Xinjiang University and Xinjiang Engineering Institute merged into a new Xinjiang University. In the past 78 years, the university has seen 65,000 students graduate.
About Xinjiang University
Founded in 1924, Xinjiang University (XJU) is the oldest university in Xinjiang, with a wide range of academic disciplines offered at the university. Xinjiang University is recognized nationally as a comprehensive university and is one of the national "211 Project" universities (a system of accreditation for universities) in China. In 2000, XJU was listed as a comprehensive university for further development in the Great West Project of China. In 2004, XJU became a university sponsored by both the MOE and the government of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. With preponderant subjects in regional studies, XJU was chosen as one of project universities of USCO in 2010. XJU has three campuses covering an area of about 730 acres and buildings totaling 1,000,000 square meters.
Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Government Scholarships for Neighboring Countries (hereinafter referred to as Government Scholarship) are full scholarships. Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Regional Office of Education is responsible for enrollment and day to day management of international students from neighboring countries.
Excellent international students from neighboring countries of Xinjiang. The Government Scholarship provides support to both degree oriented programs and non-degree oriented programs. The former includes undergraduate program (4 or 5 years), master program (3 years), and doctoral program (3 years). The latter includes Chinese language and Chinese culture programs (1 semester or 1 academic year), general scholar program (1 semester or 1 academic year), and senior scholar program (1 semester or 1 academic year).
Chinese language training shall be arranged before the major study. If the major study program is conducted in English, there will be no Chinese language training. Duration of the scholarship is decided in the enrollment process.
How about the climate in Xinjiang?
Generally, a semi-arid or desert climate prevails in Xinjiang. The entire region is marked by great seasonal differences in temperature and cold winters. During the summer, the Turpan Depression usually records the hottest temperatures nationwide, with air temperatures easily exceeding 40 °C (104 °F). In the far north, and at the highest mountain elevations, however, winter temperatures regularly drop below −20 °C (−4 °F).
Continuous permafrost is typically found in the Tian Shan starting at the elevation of about 3,500-3,700 m above the sea level. Discontinuous alpine permafrost usually occurs down to 2,700-3,300 m, but in certain locations, due to the peculiarity of the aspect and the microclimate, it can be found at elevations as low as 2,000 m.